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Billy is a 9 year old, fourth grader in a large afterschool program at his school. He lives with his parents and grandmother. His family emigrated from the Philippines before Billy was born. Billy’s parents are bilingual (English and Tagalog), his grandmother’s language is Tagalog. Billy gets lessons from her in reading and writing Tagalog on the weekends.


Billy is most comfortable in English but is conversant in Tagalog. Billy loves to play the drums and experiment with other instruments with his friends, and he is achieving at or above grade in science and physical education – he’s especially good at team sports and collaborating in experiments.


He is struggling with his literacy skills, especially reading and listening. He ‘shuts down’ or disengages when he encounters a vocabulary word with which he is unfamiliar, but likes to write in a journal the afterschool staff provided.