Lt Wtlkes: US Exploratory Expedition of 1838-1839 ^

Past History: Perhaps early man fish viewed the sea he has wondered about it.

Aristotle & his classification of marine forms mistakenly classified a Whale as a fish.

His only mistake in classification of species was the Whale.

Homer: 1000 BC Earth was considered a flat disk

Babylonians: land surrounded by Orion and Dawn.

Psalms of Island #14 re; ocean and sublimation

Greeks: Hesiod- (1000 BC)

Isles of the Blessed (Hisperides ect.)

Plato: 300-400 BC Lost Island of Atlantis (from Greek stories)


GeographicalChemical Chemical

GeologicalBiological Biological

PhysicalAstronomy Astronomy

Heroditus: Father of History

Tells the story of Phoeneuous who sailed around East Africa to West Africa through

Gilralon & to Home.

Heroditus defined the world as a sphere in 500 BC.

Zonal Concepts:





Me Chirr: In 1853 he completed Passage but partially over Ice

20th Century: Amundsen sails from Norway to Rome, Alassen (1903-1906)

North East Passage from Sweden to thru Bering

North Pole: Nansken, Peary, Parry, Markham

South Pole: Cook (1773), Bellingshausen & Weddill (1800's), Ross (1840), Wilkes

Expedition (1838-1842), Challenger (1874), Scott, Shacleon,

Scott's Death:

Scoresly: Deaton is in Greenland Sea/Whales

Ehrenbrg; (skeletons of Diatoms in H20 bottom)

Von Humboldtt; Organisms of the Sea

Hooker: Food web starts with Diatoms

Orstidt: blue/green warm sea (Trichodismium)

Dawson: Coral Reef

Miller: Plankton Net

Brooke: Led Maurey to fish map the bottom of the Sea Floor (Bathymitural Map)

(1) 4000 FA lines

(2) Bottom sediment shady

Ben Franklin named and utilized the Gulf Stream for Mail Packet Deliveries
Challenger: Sir John Murray, Sir Thompson, Used the Miller Net

Natural History Professors: Thompson frustrated M.D & Murray

Thompson: Porcupem Voyage (1869) & Lightening Voyage (1868)