East Coast Canyons

Similar to West Coast

(1) Great distance from shore

(2) Great depth

Sandstorm blocks -

Fossils labeled @ (100,000,000 cetaceans) form on type of upper artic (10,000

years old)

(1) Hudson River Canyon

(2) 4,000 feet elevation

(3) Gravel, shell, clay

(4) Trench across valley

(5) 180 miles long

Submarine Mountain Range

Continental Drift + Gonwondedland Theories

Mid-Atlantic Mountain Ridge

East of Greenland to Azores

(10-12,000 miles long)

Some volcano peaks reach above surface

St. Paul's Rock
Asunicion Island

St. Helena's Island

Continuous thru South Atlantic and around Cope into Indian Ocean and South

Africa graben & around Cape into Pacific

Chile and California

Lost under California

Marine Deposition

Sandstone - visible to naked eye (1/16 to 2 mm) land or sea origin

Sheet sands - scores to hundreds of miles/ marine or limestone sheet sands on

Cape Cod deposited by currents

Oil rich sandstone Stringers elongated lenses (oil wealth of world)

Deep Sea Sand: sand behavior salt suggests quiet water

Graduated bedding coarse to finer

Shale - laminated mudstone (silk and clay)

Siltstone - silt sized particles

Clay stone- clay size particles

Shale stone appears to be formed in shallow ?0 on central shelf

Shelf mud deposits: mud turns to shale little stratified

Lagoonal Muds: Barrier Islands -look for oil - glauconite

CaCo3 - oolites

Gypsum - salt deposits

Dillie Margin Muds: from non-alterations of shake - mud-storms, sandstorms

Black Shake: fossil contents no 02

Deep Basin Muds: California /foraminiferous

Limestone: 50 calcite = dolomite

Chalk: fine grain, poor consolilution (lime)

Mare: highly consolidated (Clay)

Reef Limestone: (petroleum source)

Conglomerates: not to broad in are probably caused by ice (ect)

Deposition Relative to Land Proximity

(1)Neretic: land deposition in sea

(a) Sand: calcarenite - shelf

(b) Clay: from a glacier to a lagoon

(2) Hemi pelgir: Rock floor off of river mouth - more organic as you go deeper

Calcareous ooze: most abundant in ablantu

(a) globergerina

(b) pteroport

(c) siliceous
Beaches: to furthest point sand is transported by waves -bounded by dunes and


Backshore: Slopes to land

Foreshore: slope to sea

Offshore: always under H20

Hook: sand spit curved

Spit: parallel sand deportation connected to land

Rill: H20 masses in sand

Ripple masses: look like wall on sand

New England Beaches

(1) Rocky

(2) Sandy: (Cape & South) (New Hampshire & North)

(1) Rocky Beach: little sand boulders & pebbles - precipitation shores

Cape Cod: Result of Glaciations

10,000 years ago

Clay, silt, & gravel

Thru bodies of H20

(1) Atlantic Ocean: cold H20 - 6 Vi foot tide -rapid erosion - three feet per year


(2) Cape Cod Bay: warm H20 - 9-10 feet tide - deposition - wide beach

(Brewster) salt mountains

(3) National Sound: warmest H20 - 2-4 feet tide - growth slope no dunes

If not beach it is because:

(1) Either precipitation

(2) Too flat

Shore Composition Factors

(1) Soil

(2) Climate

(3) Marine environment