"The Depths of the Sea Text"

"Challenger" 3 1/2 Year Voyager

(1) Mapped the Ocean 200 Fathoms

(2) Temperature of the Oceans

(3) Different Characteristics of different Oceans

(4) Positions of Islands

(5) Currents of surface & depths

(6) Animal life in all layers of the oceans

(7) New Animals

50 Volumes

Surface on Whalen Artic: Not an MD - ex-medical student Murray took a vacancy on 1st

Challenger expedition. Worked on 5 of 50 volumes.



Coral reefs

Minimal wealth of Wealth of Christmas Islands in Indian Ocean

1500 Colonists

Phosphate deposits

(Income to Britain paid for Challenger expedition)

"Michael Sars" Voyage in 1900

Dr. Hjob (financed by Murray)

Depth of the Ocean (1912)

Wyrlle Thompson Ridge

(Northwest Scotland to Farbes)

Temperature Difference

(Temperature) SE H20 12° warm than NE in NE 30° and flowery or depth (300 fathoms)

Palumbo & Closing Net - lowered closed - open & haul close and draw in

"Vettor Pissam" Voyage

Contemporary Oceanography:

Leadus: (1) Edward Forbes (1815-1854)

(2) Mathews Maury (1806-1813)

Forbes/Manxman - 12 years old "Manual of British Natural History"

Medical Student: Did not take the medical exam instead professor of paleontology,

geology, and natural history

Utilized - Drudge for bottom sample

(Aegean - 200 Fathoms)

8-depth zone/Animal Life

Lifeless deep - Agoric below 300 Fathoms

Maury - American Navy Lieutenant

"Pathfinder of the Sea"

1st text on Oceanography