Desert & Poles vs. tropic

Iron sulfide of marsh and swamp

Hydrolysis- Weak acid Si02 Dissolved in h2o (H4Si04)

(Much more C02 in soil than air and in ocean also)

Hydrolysis of feldspars (orthoclase & plagioclase) 50% of earth's minerals

Clay and aluminum silicates - Bauxite

Kaolin, vermiculite, chlorite, montmonorillite

Weathering series of rocks- millions to less than 200 years.

Microbial, weathering, algae, fungi, Cyanobacteria to clean up chemical wastes.

Review soil horizons



Karst - solution topography

High rock solubility & porocity

Solution is weathering and erosion combined

Dolomite & gypsum salt increases

Tropics to Poles

Karstology & terminology

Hypogenic Caves (sulfuric acid)

CaCo3 epigenic / near surface

H20 + HC03 carbonic acid

Pressure, mixing, temp (different types of h2o)

Phytokarst of Grand Canyan - cyanobacteria

Guano - Chincha Islands - Rock Phosphate

Nauru and Ocean is in pacific

Cold Water vs. Warm Water

Cave use historically- Caves & bandits from Jesse James to V C to Julio 14 to Chetniks

Cause - deep flow paths below water table and in areas of water table fluctuation

Caves are horizontal & support

Speleotherms - Stalactites vs. Stalagmites

Cols and submerged Pools

Mass Wasting - Weathered Rock

Gravity, pressure, flowing h2o

Angle of Repose gp - gt

Gt greater than gp- Than rock moves down hill

Cohesion - from ground - (40-60%h2o)

Slope - 25 - 40 - movement - depends upon type

Description - Fall, rock, debris, earth, monolith fall