*Any large slide can be called an avalanche

*Submarine land slides, slope slides margin slides and turbidity currents

*Badlands - Linear slopes & divides, knife edge ridges


Cenozoic Tectonism - Modem Continent Shape

- Sea Floor Spread, layer ocean, Antarctic Ice

Tectonic Orogeny Mt. Bidg = Diastrophism

Orogeny & Converging plates = Himalaya & Urals

Island arcs, trenches, cordillera. Collision hills and Strike/Slip

Island Arcs, - Pacific, Indonesia, Caribbean (Role of Coral in windward locations)

Cordillera - Andes - Narrow range. Narrow valley, Andesitic volcano.

Collision Belt - Fault Block Mts. Argentina Pampas

East Canada Rocky Mt/

Appalachain Mt.

Extensional - Basin & Ridge vs. Sierra Nevada & Colorado Plateau

Rift Valley - East Africa

Strike / Slip - Lebanon - Dead Sea

Uplift - opposed to gravity of geoid

New Zealand & PNG

Space GEodesy - VLBI, SLR, GPS .

Epeirogeny - Continental Formation

Craton Shields - low relief- volcanic

(US intermountain plateaus) - Mantle plumes and uplift below crust

Rates - Vary slow vs fast

10m vs 100m / 100 m yrs

Neotectonism - years & decades of new movement vs. seismotectonics - 6 mm/yr

Appalachian Mts.

Tectonism & Climate

Monsoon - AM to CW climate cause a effect of drainage

Terra Rocha of Tropics


Chemozem Soil

Patterned Ground of Tundra


Glacial Soils

Caliche of Desert and Adobe